Si Satchanalai Historical Park, Overview Si Satchanalai Historical Park, Map of Si Satchanalai Historical Park

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Si Satchanalai Historical Park
Overview
Si Satchanalai Historical Park
Si Satchanalai Historical Park
Location : Amphoe Si Satchanalai
Si Satchanalai Historical Park, is situated on the bank of the Yom River. Important ancient monuments are contained within the old city walls and outside the city walls. Historical Park is a World Heritage Site Before Sukhothai era it was Si Satchanalai town. A feature of Sukhothai temple structural design is the lotus-bud pagoda. However at Sukhothai also Sri Lanka and Srivijaya type memorials are present. Mainly of the place of worship structures in this Historical Park were raised for the period of the Kingdom of Sukhothai era (1235-1438). The prehistoric town, once called Muang Chaliang, was named Si Satchanalai during the reign of Phra Ruang when a new governmental core was established to reinstate Chaliang. When Pho Khun Ramkhamhaeng (The third king of Sukhothai era) has come to succeed to the throne as king of Sukhothai , he reconstruct and development in all aspects Satchanalai city. There are many kings in Sukhothai era. Even when Sukhothai fall under the authority of Ayutthaya during the early royalty of the Phra Ruang dynasty would be honored to governance in the old city Satchanalai. Si Satchanalai Historical Park has been honored as a World Heritage (World Heritage) as well as the Sukhothai Historical Park since 1991.

How to get there
Located at Tambon Mueang Kao, a.k.a. Kaeng Luang, which is 11 kilometres off Amphoe Si Satchanalai towards Amphoe Sawankhalok or some 550 kilometres from Bangkok.

Opening Hours : Daily 08.00 am. - 05.00 pm.
Contact : Tel. 0 5567 9211
Map
(27) Wat Pa Kaeo or Wat Tri Phum Pa Kaeo (40) Wat Khao Indra Si Satchanalai Historical Park Map
(3) Don Leam Gate and Its Fortress (7) Tao Mo Gate (16) Tao Thu Rieng Ban Ko Noi (17) Tao Thu Rieng Ban Pa Yang (18) Wat Kudi Rai (21) Wat Chao Chan (22) Wat Chom Chuen (23) Wat Khok Singkharam (24) Wat Noi Cham Pi (25) Wat Noi (26) Wat Phra Si Ratanamahathat (28) Wat Suan Sak Si Satchanalai Historical Park Map
(1) Chaiyaphruk Gate (2) Chanasongkhram Gate and Its Fortress (4) Lak Muang (5) Ramnarong Gate and Its Fortess (6) Saphan Chan Gate and Its Fortress (8) Wat Chang Lom (9) Wat Chedi Chet Thaeo (10) Wat Khao Phanom Phloeng (11) Wat Khao Suwankhiri (12) Wat Nang Phaya (13) Wat Suan Keao Utthayan Noi (14) Wat Suan Kaeo Utthayan Yai (15) Wat Udom Pa Sak (20) The Town Wall of Chalieng (29) Wat Chedi En (30) Wat E Pur (31) Wat Hua Khon (32) Wat Khao Yai Bon (33) Wat Khao Yai Lang (34) Wat Phaya Dam (35) Wat Phrom Si Na (36) Wat Rahu (37) Wat Sa Khai Nam (38) Wat Sa Pathum (39) Wat Yai Ta Si Satchanalai Historical Park Map
(44) Wat Khao Phra Si (45) Wat Khao Rang Raeng Si Satchanalai Historical Park Map

Inside the city wall
(1) Chaiyaphruk Gate
(2) Chanasongkhram Gate and Its Fortress
(3) Don Leam Gate and Its Fortress
(4) Lak Muang
(5) Ramnarong Gate and Its Fortess

(6) Saphan Chan Gate and Its Fortress
(7) Tao Mo Gate
(8) Wat Chang Lom
(9) Wat Chedi Chet Thaeo
(10) Wat Khao Phanom Phloeng
(11) Wat Khao Suwankhiri
(12) Wat Nang Phaya
(13) Wat Suan Keao Utthayan Noi
(14) Wat Suan Kaeo Utthayan Yai
(15) Wat Udom Pa Sak
Outside the city wall – The sites in the North
(16) Tao Thu Rieng Ban Ko Noi

(17) Tao Thu Rieng Ban Pa Yang (18) Wat Kudi Rai
Outside the city wall – The sites in the South
(19) Tourist Information Center
(20) The Town Wall of Chalieng
(21) Wat Chao Chan

(22) Wat Chom Chuen
(23) Wat Khok Singkharam
(24) Wat Noi Cham Pi
(25) Wat Noi
(26) Wat Phra Si Ratanamahathat
Outside the city wall – The sites in the East
(27) Wat Pa Kaeo or Wat Tri Phum Pa Kaeo

(28) Wat Suan Sak  
Outside the city wall – The sites in the West
(29) Wat Chedi En
(30) Wat E Pur
(31) Wat Hua Khon
(32) Wat Khao Yai Bon

(33) Wat Khao Yai Lang
(34) Wat Phaya Dam
(35) Wat Phrom Si Na
(36) Wat Rahu
(37) Wat Sa Khai Nam
(38) Wat Sa Pathum
(39) Wat Yai Ta
Outside the city wall – The sites on top of hills
(40) Wat Khao Indra
(41) Wat Khao Phra Bat 1
(42) Wat Khao Phra Bat 2
(43) Wat Khao Phra Bat 3
(44) Wat Khao Phra Si
(45) Wat Khao Rang Raeng
Places of Interest
Chanasongkhram Gate and Its Fortress
Chanasongkhram Gate and Its Fortress
Chaiyaphruk Gate
This small entrance was constructed around the corner of the northwest inner town wall. It was again framed with blocks of laterite.
Chanasongkhram Gate and Its Fortress
This was another entrance built at the southwest inner wall of the town as the Saphan Chan Entrance, but located on the opposite side of Suwankhiri hill. The entrance was again framed with blocks of laterite. An earthen road was built to connect this entrance to a pentagon fortress built of lateritic blocks.
Don Laem Gate and Fortress
This was the southeast entrance to the outer wall of historic Si Satchanalai town. Construction of a modern road going through the centre of town damaged the entrance so badly that its original characteristics not can be clearly seen. Near this entrance was a pentagon fortress built from blocks of laterite. Parts of the fortress were constructed on top of the earthen town wall, and a small part extended a little beyond the interior limit of the wall.
Lak Muang
Ramnarong Gate and Its Fortess
Ramnarong Gate and Its Fortess
This historic monument is situated about 150 metres left of Wat Suan Kaeo Utthayan Yai. The main building here is a hrine made from laterite blocks.
Ramnarong Gate and Its Fortess
This was a large entrance built at the southeast inner wall of this historic town. The entrance was framed with large blocks of laterite. There was a lateritic road connected this entrance with a rectangular fortress, which surrounded by the town ditches and a defensive reservoir.
Saphan Chan Gate and Its Fortress
This entrance was built at the southwest inner wall of the town. It is located close to the foot of Suwankhiri hill. Large blocks of laterite were also used here to frame the entrance. A fortress was constructed in front of this entrance.
Tao Mo Gate
This was a large entrance built between the northwest inner town wall and the eastern town wall. Large blocks of laterites were used to make the frames of this entrance.
Wat Chang Lom
Wat Chang Lom
Wat Chang Lom
This temple is located almost at the centre of the historic town, and is situated on the plain to the east of Khao Phanom Phloeng, an important low hill inside the town. The most important historic buildings at this temple is the main chedi of Sri Lankan style bounded by a demarcation wall. The base of the chedi is high and square in its shape. The front side of the base was decorated with 8 sculptures of elephant while other sides were decorated with 9 sculptures of elephant. There was one sculpture at each corner of the base. Altogether there were 39 sculptures of elephant around the base.

The sculptures of elephant at Wat Chang Lom are quite different from those found at other temples. These represent the fully standing elephants and are taller than the life elephant. Some scholars believe that this was the temple mentioned in the text of the Stone Inscription Number 1, made by King Ramkhamhaeng in 1286 AD, as the place where the king dug up the Buddha remains in order to make a homage to the remains before he reburied and built a chedi over the remains.
Wat Chedi Chet Thaeo
This temple is located opposite to Wat Chang Lom. The important buildings in this temple are the main chedi with lotus-bud shape top, a vihara building and 33 subordinate chedis. A demarcation wall bound all. A temple ditch originally surrounded the whole building complex. This temple has been called Wat Chedi Chet Thaeo, means the temple with seven rows of chedis, because there are many subordinate chedis here. The subordinate chedis are quite famous. These bear various styles of art such as Sri Lankan, Pagan and Srivijaya styles. The late Prince Damrongrajanuphap suggested that this might be the temple where the cremated remains of the Sukhothai royal family were kept.
Wat Khao Phanom Phloeng
Wat Chedi Chet Thaeo
Wat Chedi Chet Thaeo
This is quite a famous temple built on top of a hill around the middle of the Si Satchanalai town. The most important component of this temple is its main chedi of Sri Lankan style made of lateritic blocks. The steps leading from the foot of the hill to the temple are also made of lateritic blocks. There are 2 series of steps that lead to the top of the hill.
Wat Khao Suwankhiri
This is another temple built on the top of a hill. This hill, called Khao Suwankhiri, is located just to the west of Khao Phanom Phloeng. The main buildings of this temple are a chedi of Sri Lankan style and a vihara. Subordinate chedis and vihara are also found.
Wat Nang Phaya
The main chedi of Sri Lankan style is the focus of this temple. This chedi is supported by a high base, which was once decorated with sculptures of elephant similar to Wat Chang Lom. Another important and famous historic structure here is a vihara building made of laterite blocks. The exterior face of the vihara's walls were decorated with highly elaborated stucco bearing the art style Ayutthaya period.
Wat Suan Keao Utthayan Noi
Wat Suan Kaeo Utthayan Yai
Wat Suan Kaeo Utthayan Yai
This temple is located about 200 metres to the east of Wat Chang Lom. The main chedi of this temple has the lotus shape top.There are 13 subordinate chedis surrounded the main chedi. The temple was bounded by a demarcation wall with 2 entrances at the front and the back sides.
Wat Suan Kaeo Utthayan Yai
The important historic structures in this temple include a main Sri Lankan style chedi made of laterite and foundation of a vihara building with 10 lateritic roof-supporting posts. The buildings were bounded by demarcation walls made from lateritic blocks.
Wat Udom Pa Sak
This temple is almost opposite Lak Muang. The main feature of this temple is a chedi with a lotus-shaped top. Subordinate chedis surround the main chedi.
Tao Thu Rieng Ban Ko Noi
Tao Thu Rieng Ban Ko Noi
Tao Thu Rieng Ban Ko Noi
This group of glazed ceramic kilns were located along the bank of the Yom river, about 4 kilometres from the Ban Pa Yang groups. About 200 kilns were found in an area measuring about 1.5 square kilometres. 2 groups of kilns have been excavated and developed into site museums. The groups can be categorized as follows:

Kiln Group No. 61: This group comprises 4 underground kilns, dug into the river banks. The main products of these kilns were large jars for storing water and dry materials.

Kiln Group No. 42: 19 kilns have been found so far in this group. These kilns can be divided into 2 major types: updraft and cross-draft. Archaeological studies at Ban Ko Noi have yielded much knowledge on the development of ancient ceramic technology at Si Satchanali. The earliest type of kiln, appearing at Ban Ko Noi around the 11th - 12th century, was the underground bank-kilns. This early type of kiln looked like a round hole dug into the river bank. There were no fired walls to separate the firing chambers from the fuel chambers. Both glazed and unglazed ceramic jars and bowls were produced in these underground kilns. The glazed ceramics produced during this early period were exclusively olive green. The second type of kiln at Ban Ko Noi was the above-ground type, much larger in size, and constructed directly on top of earlier kilns. Olive green glazed pottery was the main product of these kilns.

The above-ground kilns were constructed of bricks. Glazed pottery produced in these later kilns, dated around the 14th - 15th century, were of various types and shapes. During this time, the glazed pottery of Si Satchanalai, known as Sangkhalok, was exported as far as Japan, Indonesia and the Philippines.
Tao Thu Rieng Ban Pa Yang
Tao Thu Rieng Ban Pa Yang
Tao Thu Rieng Ban Pa Yang
These groups of ancient glazed ceramic kilns are on the west bank of the Yom river about 500 metres from the historic Si Satchanalai town. At least 21 kilns are known to have existed here. The kilns can be divided into 2 main groups.

Tao Yak Group: This group is comprised of 15 kilns, which produced mainly pottery and ceramic sculptures. The latter were mostly in the forms of demons, divinities and makara figures, and were normally used as architectural elements. Because the word “Yak” in Thai language means demon, and since this group of kilns produced a large number of Yak figurines, the group of kilns has been called Tao Yak, or “the kilns for producing demon figures”.

Tao Tukkata Group: In Thai the word Tukkata means dolls, or small figurines. Apparently, this group of kilns produced a large number of small human and animal figurines, and of have been called Tao Tukkata. The Tao Tukkata Group of kilns, located about 600 metres north of the Tao Yak Group, were comprised of at least 6 cross-draft kilns with curved ceilings. The floors of the firing chambers were slightly sloped, about 10-30 degrees.

Wat Kudi Rai
This temple is located about 50 metres from the Tao Mo Entrance of the ancient town of Si Satchanalai. The most significant historic building here is a vihara with mandapa adjacent to the back. This was constructed mainly from blocks of laterite. Wat Chom Chuen
Wat Chom Chuen
The Town Wall of Chalieng
These are remains of ancient town walls built from blocks of laterite on earthen ramparts to enclose certain areas to the southeast of Si Satchanalai town. The northern side of the areas, however, has the course of the Yom River as its natural boundary. The dating of the wall is still uncertain. Some scholars have suggested that the walls belonged to the pre-Si Satchanalai town, called Chalieng town in certain historic chronicles. It has been, therefore, called the town wall of Chalieng. It is quite possible that the walls were initially built as earthen ramparts and the laterite blocks were added on top of the ramparts in a later period.
Wat Chao Chan
This temple is behind Wat Chom Chuen and consists of another group of historic buildings in existence since pre-Sukhothai times. The most important historic structure here is a main shrine in the ancient Khmer architectural style, built from laterite blocks. Archaeological excavations unearthed deposits containing brick fragments and characteristic artefacts of the Dvaravati period, around the 6th- 10th century AD. This evidence suggests that brick buildings might have been present in this area before the laterite shrine made its appearence and replaced them.
Wat Chom Chuen
Wat Khok Singkharam
Wat Khok Singkharam
The remains of the small temple date from the Sukhothai period, although it's also thought this site was occupied by soldiers from Lanna for some time. The ruins consist of a truncated chedi along with a mondop in good condition. However, the main draw here is the archaeological museum next to the temple. Excavations at this site has found evidence, including burials and ceramics, of human occupation dating back to the third or fourth centuries. The museum replicates the look and finds of the digging.
Wat Khok Singkharam
Located about 1 kilometre southeast of Si Satchanalai town, the major historic structures in this temple include main Sri Lankan style chedi, a rectangular viha~ra, an uposatha, and 4 subordinate chedis, a built from blocks of laterite. “Phongsawadarn Nua”, or the historic chronicle of Northern Thailand, mentioned Wat Khok Singkharam as the temple located at the centre of town where Bhramans, high- positioned Buddhist cardinals, high-positioned monks, 500 enlightened monks and other monks were invited to meet.
Wat Noi Cham Pi
This temple is located not far from Wat Chao Chan. The main historic builbings here include a Sri Lankan style chedi made of laterite and a vihara building. The most interesting feature of this temple is the floor of vihara. It was cover with glazed ceramic tiles produced from Ko Noi kiln sites. This was the only vihara of Si Satchanalai that contained a floor covered with glazed tiles.
Wat Noi
This temple is situated to the southeast of Si Satchanalai town. A small chedi with lotus shape top is the main historic building of the temple. During his journey to visit the historic monuments of Si Satchanalai, King Rama VI had stopped over night near by Wat Noi on February 2, 1907 AD. This is another reason that made this temple being considered as an important historic place.
Wat Phra Si Ratanamahathat
Wat Phra Si Ratanamahathat
Wat Phra Si Ratanamahathat
This is a large historic temple complex located to the southeast of Si Satchanalai town. The decorative stucco bearing the Bayon art style of ancient Khmer found at the main entrance of the temple as well as archaeological evidence excavated here; including foundations of earlier brick structures found beneath 2 buildings called Wiharn (vihara) Luang and Wiharn Phra Song Phi Nong and fragments of roofing tile with designs in Bayon art style, point out clearly that Wat Phra Si Ratanamahathat was originally founded before Sukhothai kingdom. Some scholars suggest that it was firstly constructed during the times of Pho Khun Si Nao Nam Thum, or around the early 13th century AD. Important buildings of this temple that can be seen in the present are as follows.

The main shrine: This was built from blocks of laterite which were in turn covered with lime plaster and red paint. Architectural characteristics of the shrine as seen in the present indicate that it could be dated to the Early Ayutthaya period. However, there is some archaeological evidence suggesting that the shrine might have been built to cover an earlier structure, probably an important pre-Sukhothai period stupa or chedi.

Vihara of Luang Pho To: This building is situated in front of the main shrine. A huge Buddha Image of Maravijaya gesture was place inside this building.

Phra That Mutao: This is possibly remaining of a Mon style chedi built from blocks of laterite. It was certainly built in the different time from the shrine.

Mandapa of Phra Attharot: This building is situated just behind Phra That Mutao. As suggested by some scholars, the original mandapa might have sculptures of Buddha at each exterior wall and have a roof with ceramic tiles.

Wiharn Phra Song Phi Nong: Located to the left of the mandapa, this building was built from blocks of laterite directly on ruin of a brick building.

Uposatha (an ordination hall): The existing Uposatha, situated in front of vihara, is a new building constructed directly over the historic one.

Kuti Phra Ruang -Phra Lue: The local villagers also call this Sal Phra Ruang- Phra Lue shrine. Phra Ruang and Phra Lue are a couple of Image in royal attire. It is believed that they are image of two heroes in the legend of the founders of Sukhothai and Si Satchanalai. The shrine was reconstructed in the same year as the Uposatha.

Wat Pa Kaeo or Wat Tri Phum Pa Kaeo
Wat Suan Sak
Wat Suan Sak
The important buildings in this temple include a main chedi of Sri Lankan style and a rectangular vihara, both made from blocks of laterite.
Wat Suan Sak
The important buildings in this temple include a main chedi, a rectangular vihara and the demarcations. These are all made of laterite blocks.
Wat Chedi En
This temple is located on the same hill with Wat Chedi Chet Yod, but on the opposite side. The important historic buildings here include a main Lankan style chedi and a vihara building. Both were constructed from blocks of laterite.
Wat E Pur
Wat E Pur
Wat E Pur
This temple was built at the foot of Khao Yai. Its main entrance looks to the east. The important historic buildings in this temple include a vihara, uposatha (ordination hall) and a hexagon foundation of a chedi.
Wat Hua Khon
This temple is located about 400 metres from the town wall of Si Satchanalai. The largest and the most important historic building here are a main mandapa. Inside the mandapa there is a huge standing Buddha Image.
Wat Khao Yai Bon
This temple was built on the top of Khao Yai. Its large Sri Lankan style main chedi was constructed to cover a small chedi. A vihara and mandapa buildings are in front of the chedi. At the southern foot of the hill there are 2 water cisterns. Fragments of ceramic roofing tile were found scattering around this southern foothill area. This suggests that some meditation houses might have been presented in this area.
Wat Khao Yai Lang
This temple was constructed on slope of a hill called Khao Yai. It is located to the west of Was Chedi En. The significant historic building here is a Sri Lankan style main chedi. The bell-shape middle part of this chedi is relatively short comparing to other Sri Lankan style chedis. This suggests that it might be an early form of Sri Lankan style chedi in Si Satchanalai town.
Wat Phaya Dam
Wat Hua Khon
Wat Hua Khon
The important historic buildings in this temple include the main mandapa, a vihara building, a mandapa of a standing Buddha Image and 38 subordinate chedis. A reservoir was dug in front of the vihara building. The whole temple complex was bounded by a demarcation wall made of elongated laterite blocks.
Wat Phrom Si Na
This temple is located on a low plain nearby an ancient irrigation dike, and is about 300 metres to the north of Wat Sa Pathum. The important historic buildings here include a main mandapa with 4 niches for placing the standing Buddha Images and a vihara building. One of the niches on the mandapa was decorated with wall painting of a man holding a sword.
Wat Rahu
This temple is located about 50 metres to the east of Wat Sa Khai Nam. The main chedi is in the lotus bud shape.
Wat Sa Khai Nam
Wat Yai Ta
Wat Yai Ta
This temple is located about 200 metres from the Saphan Chan Entrance. The important buildings are a main chedi of Si Lankan style and a vihara with a mandapa.
Wat Sa Pathum
The significant historic buildings here comprise a mandapa built of laterite blocks, a chedi with round lower base located behind the mandapa, and a vihara building. Two small Buddha Images covered with gold foil were found by an excavation conducted here. The temple complex was surrounded by a ditch. There was a small road of laterite blocks connected this temple with Wat Phaya Dam.
Wat Yai Ta
The most important historic building in this temple, which located to the west of Wat Sa Khai Nam, is a main mandapa. This is the highest and largest mandapa in Si Satchanalai town. A large ceramic tube, which might have been used either as water pipe or as window balustrade, found here was inscribed with Thai alphabets of Sukhothai period into a word read as "Nang Phim".
Wat Khao Indra
Khao Indra is a low hill on the east bank of the Yom river, northeast of Si Satchanalai town. This temple was built on top of the hill. The important historic constructions in this temple are: a main chedi, a vihara, the outer walls of which were beautifully decorated with designs in stucco similar to those of Wat Nang Phaya, and the foundations of an uposatha. Blocks of laterite were used to construct buildings. The name Wat Khao Indra was also mentioned in the Pongsawadarn Nua, or the Northern Historic Chronicle.
Wat Khao Phra Si
This temple was built on top of Khao Phra Si, located south of Sri Satchanalai town. Important historic constructions of this temple comprise a main chedi and a vihara. Fragments of green glazed ceramic tiles were found scattered on the grounds of the temple. Remains of monks residences and a general activity hall were found at the foot of the hill. The roofs of these buildings were possibly covered with green glazed ceramic tiles, as suggested by the presence of tile fragments here.
Wat Khao Rang Raeng
This temple was built on top of Khao Rang Raeng, and was bounded by demarcation walls of laterite blocks. Important features of this temple are a main chedi, a rectangular viha~ra, and an uposatha, all of laterite blocks. It should be noted that the name Wat Khao Rang Raeng also appeared in the Pongsawadarn Nua, or the Northern Historic Chronicle.