Location : Amphoe Mueang
Sukhothai Historical Park
The Sukhothai Historical Park Covers the ruins of Sukhothai, capital of the Sukhothai kingdom in the 13th
centuries, in what is now the north of Thailand. It is located near the modern city of Sukhothai,
capital of the province with the same name.
The city walls form a rectangle about 2 km east-west by 1.6 km north-south. There are 193 ruins on 70 square kilometers
of land. There is a gate in the centre of each wall. Inside are the remains of the royal palace and twenty-six temples,
the largest being Wat Mahathat. The park is maintained by the Fine Arts Department of Thailand with help from UNESCO,
which has declared it a World Heritage Site. The park sees thousands of visitors each year,
who marvel at the ancient Buddha figures, palace buildings and ruined temples.
The park is easily toured by bicycle or even on foot.
How to get there
Inside the park, tourists have the option to take private vehicles, bicycles or trams to move about.
08.30 am.- 04.30 pm.
Tel. 0 5569 7310
Places of Interest
King Ramkhamhaeng the Great Monument
King Ramkhamhaeng the Great Monument
The city wall is located in the center of the historical park in Tambon Muang Kao and surrounded by
earthen ramparts. The north and the south walls are each 2,000 metres long, where as the east and the
west walls are each 1,600 metres long. The walls contain four main gates: Sanluang on the north, Namo
on the south, Kamphaenghak on the east, and Oar on the west. A stone inscription mentions that King
Ramkhamhaeng set up a bell at one of the gates. If his subjects needed help, they would ring the bell
and the King would come out to settle disputes and dispense justice. Inside the town stands 35 monuments
including Buddhist temples and many other structures.
In the east, adjacent to Wat Mahathat stands and ancient monument known as Noen Prasat. According to the
assumption of King Rama VI, Noen Prasat is the remains of the base of the palace of the Sukhothai kings.
The Fine Arts Department in 1983 A.D excavated this ancient monument. The elevated base of the building in
the rectangular form is 27.50 m x 51.50 m, adorned with overturned and upturned stucco lotus petals and
having front and back stairs.
However, evidence found from the excavation is not enough to confirm the already mentioned supposition.
Moreover, and old map made in the reign of King Rama V indicates that this ancient building located within
the compound of Wat Mahathat is likely to be a religious building o pavilion rather than a royal palace.
It is believed that the palace of the Sukhothai kings was made of wood and situated to the north of Ta Pha
Daeng shrine and to the west of Wat Sorasak. A wooden palace of the 14th century was mentioned in the stone
inscription of Wat Sorasak as a residence of the Sukhothai royalty with its layout similar to the one of Khmer
palace in Angkor Thom.
Ramkhamhaeng National Museum
Ta Pha Daeng Shrine
The Department of Fine Arts Started its construction in 1960 in the Sukhothai archaeological site, using a
government budget combined with proceeds from sale of molded Buddha images obtained from the renovative and
reconstructive excavations of ancient remains in the old town of the Sukhohai. Its construction was completed
in 1963. The Character of the Ramkhamhaeng National Museum building is thatof an applied Thai - style 2 - story
building. Their majesties the King and the Queen opened it on January 25,1964.
Subsequently, in 1983, the government allotted an amount of Baht 3 million from the budget for the construction
of a building in the Ramkhamhaeng National Museum compound marking its participation in celebrating the 700th
anniversary of Lai Sue Thai, the Thai letters of the alphabet, and named this building "Lai Sue Thai Memorial
Building". His Royal Highness the Crown Prince opened it on November 17,1983. Presently, this building is used
as an auditorium and temporary exhibition hall.
Opening Hours : Daily from 08.30 am. – 04.00 pm.
Ta Pha Daeng Shrine
Wat Chana Songkhram
Situated adjacent to a reservoir named Tra Kuan in the west and the town gate in the north, this ancient
edifice was put on a map in the reign of King Rama V of the Rattanakosin period and was known as Theparak
Yai Shrine and Ta Pha Daeng Shrine. This laterite shrine was built in Khmer style on a base adorned with
stucco of lotus petals. Extended from the shrine, projecting chambers were constructed on its east and west
sides with the eastern room longer that the western one.
During the excavation of Ta Pha Daeng Shrine undertaken by the Fine Arts Department, fragments of god and
goddess images adorned with beautiful ornaments were discovered. Based on comparative studies, these finds
may be connected to the Angkor Wat art style during the reign of King Suriyavarman II (1113 - 1150 A.D.) of
Cambodia. At present, these valuable objects are exhibited in the Ramkhamhaeng National Museum. This ancient
monument serves as evidence for the embrace of Khmer culture and Hinduism in this area around the late 12th
The Royal Palace
The royal palace lies in the centre of the town and covers an area of 160,000 square metres. This area is
surrounded by a moat and contains two main compounds; the royal building and the sanctuary in the palace.
In the royal compound exist the ruins of the royal building called Noen Phrasat. Here, the famous stone
inscription of King Ramkhamhaeng was found by King Mongkut (Rama IV) in the 19th
century together with a
piece of the stone throne called "Manangkhasila-at". King Ramhamhaeng set up the throne in the midst of a
sugar-palm grove where, at his request, a monk preached on Buddhist Sabbath days and the King conducted the
affairs of state on other days. This throne was later installed in Bangkok’s Temple of the Emerald Buddha.
The Town Pillar Shrine
Located adjacent to the northern moat of Wat Mahathat, this small building was constructed on as elevated
base of a square form with a tiled roof of wooden structure. There is no mention of a pillar of Sukhothai
in any stone inscriptions. Moreover, the concept of the town pillar of the Sukhothai period never becomes
evident. However, this ancient monument has been known for so long among Sukhothai people as San Klang Muang
which means the shrine in the heart of the town. In the reign of King Rama VI of the Rattanakosin period,
Phraya Wichian Prakan excavated the site and two laterite pillars at each of the Four Corners were found
with a pit in the centre presumably for burying a boundary stone called Luk Nimit. In this pit a slab of
stone was also found with some blurred engraving assumed by King Rama VI as a horoscope diagram of the town.
This assumption led people to believe that this place was actually the town pillar shrine of Sukhothai.
The Wall Of The Old City
Wat Sa Si
The city wall is located in the center of the historical park in Tambon Muang Kao and surrounded by earthen
ramparts. The north and the south walls are each 2,000 metres long, where as the east and the west walls are
each 1,600 metres long. The walls contain four main gates: Sanluang on the north, Namo on the south,
Kamphaenghak on the east, and Oar on the west. A stone inscription mentions that King Ramkhamhaeng set up a
bell at one of the gates. If his subjects needed help, they would ring the bell and the King would come out to
settle disputes and dispense justice. Inside the town stands 35 monuments including Buddhist temples and many
Wat Chana Songkhram
Situated to the north of Wat Mahathat and near to the town pillar shrine. Wat Chana Songkhram was formerly
known as Wat Ratchaburana. Its imposing building is the main chedi in bell shape of vast size. In the east
there are a vihara, the ordination hall and subordinate chedis surrounding the main one. Topped by a structure
in the shape of receding stories (vimanas), one of these subordinate chedis on the eastern flank of the main
chedi is worth mentioning because of its striking feature, similar to Wat Chedi Chet Thaeo in Si Satchanalai,
presumably, this distinctive chedi was later built.
Situated in the heart of the town,Wat Mahathat was built in accordance with Indian ancient concept of Mandala.
This significant temple comprises the main chedi (stupa), a vihara (assembly hall of worship) and mandapas
(a square form building with a palatial spired roof for housing an Image of Buddha), an uposatha (the ordination
hall) and 200 subordinate chedis. Surrounded by 8 chedis, the main one in the centre has a graceful shape of
lotus bud characterizing the art of Sukhothai. Among the 8 chedis forming 4 sides of the main stupa, the four
ones at the corners belong to the Hariphunchai - Lanna art style while the other four lying in between each have
a prasada - shaped body topped with a spire in Sukhothai style and decorated with stuccoed reliefs under the
influence of Sri Lankan art. Presumably, the main chedi had originally been constructed in the latter style
before it was rebuilt in the lotus bud shape.
The base of the main chedi is decorated with stucco relief of Buddhist disciples walking with their hands clapped
together in salutation. Stone Inscription No. 1 says "At the centre of Sukhothai there are a vihara, a golden
Buddha Image, Phra Attharot Buddha Images, large Buddha Images, medium Buddha Images". The golden Buddha image
referred in the inscription is understood to be a bronze Buddha Image in the posture of subduing Mara (the Evil
One) to be enshrined in the royal vihara of Wat Mahathat. In the reign of King Rama I (the late 18th c. AD) of
the Rattanakosin Period, this Buddha image was removed by raft to be installed at Wat Suthat Thepwararam in
Bangkok. The singificant Buddha image was later named Phra Si Sakkayamuni by King Rama II. At present, the
large pedestal of this Buddha Image still remains to be seen at the royal vihara of Wat Mahathat.
The Buddha images mentioned as Phra Attharot refer to standing Buddha Images of 12 metres in height enshrined
in the mandapas situated on both sides of the principle chedi. Next to the royal vihara towards the east stands
a tall vihara of 1.5 metres in height. Its base decorated with stucco relief of lotus-petals.This vihara was
built later in Ayutthaya style, and the little space between to front of the vihara and a wall enclosing it was
out of proportion of the height of the building. This is a reason why it was called the tall vihara. Within the
compound of Wat Mahathat there is a group of stupas situated to the south of the main chedi. At its centre stands
the one with five spires, second to the main chedi in size.
Situated to the north of Wat Mahathat is Wat Mai. Wat Mai, having a brick viham as the main sanctuary, is in
Ayutthaya style. The columns of the viharn are made of laterite. A bronze image of the Buddha under a Naga,
(Lop Bun-style) was found here and is now preserved in the Ramkhamhaeng National Museum.
Wat Sa Si
Wat Si Sawai
Situated to the northwest of Wat Mahathat, this ancient edifice was built beautifully in the middle of a large
reservoir known as Tra Phang Tra Kuan. Its important buildings include a chedi in a bell shape, a vihara and the
ordination hall in the middle of the reservoir. Prior to 1978 AD, there was a road named Charot Withi Thong
running through the temple. Fully conscious of great damage and environmental problems which arose from the
said road, the Fine Arts Department pulled it down and built a new one along the reservoir.
The bell shaped stupa serves as historical evidence of the diffusion of Sinhalese Buddhism in Sukhothai. This
stupa is sometimes known as the chedi in Sri Lankan shape. According to the inscription on golden plate, it is
believed that the relic of Phra Maha Dharmaraja Li Thai has been enshrined in this stupa. And the ordination hall
constructed in the middle of the reservoir points to a Buddhist concept of demarcating an area where monks perform
religious functions by enclosure of the holy precincts with water as a symbol of purity.
Wat Si Sawai
Wat Si Sawai is situated 350 metres from the south of Wat Mahathat. Its three prangs (imitated Hindu Shikhara
Vimanas) are regarded as ancient edifice of considerable significance. Demarcated by a wall, the three prangs
were built in Lop Buri art style. Their slender forms on low bases are decorated with stucco, some designs are
similar to those on Chinese ware of Yuan dynasty. Found in situ, a carved lintel depicting the reclining Vishnu
on Ananta Naga(Anantasayana), fragments of Hindu god images and linga, all point out that this temple was
originally a Hindu sanctuary and was later transformed into a Buddhist temple with some expansion of the frontal
part in form of a vihara.
Wat Son Khao
Inside the northern wall of Sukhothai and close to the gate of the royal shrine, this ancient temple is well
known for its lotus bud-shaped chedi. There is no mention of the name of this temple in any stone inscriptions.
Wat Son Khao is a name bestowed by local residents. In 1965, excavation and restoration were undertaken by the
Fine Arts Department. Wat Son Khao and Wat Sorasak might have originally been the same temple.
The temple is situated inside the northern wall of Sukhothai and close to Ta Pha Daeng shrine, which is to the
southwest of this ancient monument. According to the stone inscription of Wat Sorasak, Nai Inthara Sorasak was
granted by Okya Dharmaraja, a Sukhothai governor, a piece of land where he built a temple is dedication to the
govenor. Afer the construction was completed, Venerable Mahathera Dharmmtrailok from Dao Khon, an uncle of the
Sukhothai governor, was invited to reside at this temple.
Later on, in 1416 AD Somdet Phra Borommarachathirat II (Chao Sam Phraya), as a young boy, came with his mother
and aunt to Sukhothai to perform a religious ceremony. During the visit, his aunt stayed at the palace in the
west and close to Wat Sorasak. This part of story mentioned in the stone inscription of Wat Sorasak helps to point
out that the palace of the Sukhothai royalty is likely to be located to the west of Wat Sorasak and the north
of Ta Pha Daeng Shrine. A distinctive building in this temple is its main chedi in circular bell shape on a base
surrounded with elephant sculptures. The chedi in this style is another type of Sri Lankan stupa that was prevalent
during the Sukhothai period. The concept of elephants guarding the chedi is based on a belief that the elephant,
regarded as a beast of burden for the emperor, is a suitable animal to firmly uphold Buddhism throughout the period
of 5000 years.
Wat Tra Kuan
This temple has been known as Wat Tra Kuan since 1907 AD. Its name was mentioned in the stone inscription of Wat
Sorasak around the middle of the 15th century AD. It is said that Venerable Mahathera Dharmatrailok from Dao Khon
came from the north to see his nephew who was a ruler of Sukhothai and he resided at Wat Tra Kuan during his visit.
Based on the supposition of King Rama VI of the Rattanakosin period, Tra Kuan is a khmer word which means a kind
of vegetables known in Thailand as Phak Bung or the morning glory in English. Important buildings in this temple
include a circular bell shaped chedi and the ordination hall. Buddha Images of the early art of Sukhothai period
in Wat Tra Kuan style were also found here.
Wat Tra Phang Ngoen
Wat Tra Phang Thong
Situated 300 metres to the west of Wat Mahathat; this ancient temple, without boundary wall, is composed of the
main chedi, a vihara and an uposatha (the ordination hall) in the middle of a reservoir. The main chedi was built
in the shape of a lotus bud with four niches to enshrine standing and walking Buddha images. These recesses in a
body of the chedi are a striking feature, which makes the chedi of Wat Tra Phang Ngoen different from other lotus
bud shaped chedis. In the east of the main chedi, the ordination hall was constructed on the island in the middle
of the reservoir named Tra Phang Ngoen. The construction of this ordination hall is in accordance with the concept
known as Udaka Sima or Nadi Sima which means the enclosure of the precincts of the ordination hall with water as
a symbol of demarcation.
Wat Tra Phang Thong
Located to the east of the Ramkhamhaeng National Museum, this ancient edifice was constructed on the island
in the middle of the reservoir named Tra Phang Thong. Surrounded with 8 subordinate chedis, the main one in
circular bell shape was built on laterite base with its upper part made of brick. Its ordination hall is in
rather good condition because it was rebuilt about 90 years ago on the foundation of the old one of the Sukhothai
period by Phraya Ronachaichanyut (Khrut), a Sukhothai governor, who was ordained here as a novice. Regarded as a
valuable asset to the temple is a stone sculpture of Buddha footprint removed from Phra Bat Yai hill. The stone
footprint was made in 1359 AD in the reign of Phra Maha Dharmaraja Li Thai of the Sukhothai period.
Sangkhalok means Thai ceramics, which was made in both Si Satchanlai and Sukhothai during the Sukhothai period.
It was glazed in different colours such as pale blue, brown, transparent coating over decorative designs and etc.
Sangkhalok was exported far and wide to different places like Ayutthaya, the south of the present - day Thailand,
the Philippines, Indonesia, Japan, and the Middle-East.
A group of Sangkhalok kilns was found in the north outside the town wall, especially around the rampart of Wat Phra
Phai Luang. There are two types of Sangkhalok kilns; an updraft kiln - in a round shape with holes at its bottom
for ventilating heat vertically, and the other a cross-draft kiln - in a tortoise - shell shape with an outlet for
ventilating heat horizontally. Most of Sangkhalok kilns in Sukhothai were made of brick while some kilns in Si
Satchanalai were slab kilns dug in the ground. From the excavation undertaken by the Fine Arts Department, the brick
kilns were found in the hard soil, the lowermost layer of earth in Sukhothai.
Wat Mae Chon
Situated to the east of Wat Phra Phai Luang along Muang Kao - Nong Ta Chot road, this temple is composed
of a vihara of five chambers on a base of 7.50 m x 11.45 m and 3 chedis behind the vihara. To the northwest
of the temple, there is an ancient well lined with slate. The diameter of the well is around one metre.
Wat Nong Prue
Situated near the town moat in the north and to the southwest of Mae Chon ditch, this temple consists of a
vihara made of brick and laterite on a base of 9 m x 11 m. Its roof with wooden framework was covered with tiles.
Wat Om Rop
Situated near Wat Si Chum, Wat Om Rop consists of a main lotus bud-shaped chedi, a vihara made of brick, and 9
subordinate chedis. A moat surrounds the entire temple complex.
Wat Phra Phai Luang
Wat Phra Phai Luang
Located close to the northern gate and outer rampart of Sukhothai, Wat Phra Phai Luang is considered a group of
ancient edifices of great significance because its buildings, constructed in different phases, have left impressive
evidence of the evolution of Sukhothai art and architecture. This group of ancient monuments was built in the middle
of an area, which was enclosed with a moat of 600 metres long for each side. The oldest ancient monuments in this
temple are 3 buildings constructed in prasad form (imitated Hindu Shikhara Vimanas). At present, two of them are
still in existence with only their bases remaining to be seen. The remaining one in the north is adorned with stuccoes
relief depicting the story of Buddha, like those at a prasad of Wat Mahathat in Lop Buri Province and at Palilai
Prasad in Angkor, the capital of the Ancient Khmer Kingdom. These stuccoes relief help to confirm the supposition
that around the 13th century AD communities in Sukhothai had cultural contact with the Khmer in the reign of
Jayavarman VII and were also associated with Lavo (Lop Buri), a Khmer town of importance in the central plain.
To the east of the prasad are located a vihara and a chedi in pyramid shape with every sloping side decorated with
superimposed receding porches, which are similar to those of Ku Kut chedi in Lamphun, for enshrining Buddha Images.
Moreover, Buddha images in Wat Tra Kuan art style enshrined in closed porches were found underneath those in Sukhothai
style. Such a discovery points to the fact that new chedis were rebuilt in different periods to replace the old ones.
Located at the eastern extremity of this temple, a mandapa was built to enshrine Buddha Images in four postures,
namely sitting, reclining, standing and walking. This mandapa is likely to belong to the late Sukhothai period.
Wat Rong Khwang Tawan
West of Wat Phra Phai Luang, this small temple consists of a vihara and 2 brick chedis.
This lies about 1,980 metres north of Wat Mahathat. The viharn enshrines a stucco image of Sukhothai style. Behind
stands a Singhalese-style chedi. To the south, a brick ubosot base is surrounded by slate semas.
Wat Si Chum
Wat Si Chum
Situated outside the town wall at the northwest corner, this ancient monument is well known for a sitting Buddha
Image of large size. The Buddha Image with its lap of 11.30 metres wide occupies the total space of the building.
Mentioned in Stone Inscription No. 1; Phra Achana, the name of this Buddha Image, means one who is not frightened.
It is believed that Phra Achana was originally carved in the attitude of subduing Mara. The present one in sitting
posture was renovated from 1953 to 1956 AD.
In a book entitled Phra Ratchaphongsawadan Krung Si Ayutthaya written in the late Ayutthaya period, the temple is
referred as a place where King Naresuan and his troops assembled before the army marched on Sawankhalok and from
which the legend of talking Buddha Image (Phra Achana) derives. Stone Inscription No. 2 known as Wat Si Chum
Inscription was found in a recess in the mandapa wall of this temple. Regarded as historical evidence of great
value, this stone inscription deals with the founding of Sukhothai dynasty. Moreover, drawings on the ceiling of
the mandapa tell stories of former incarnations of Lord Buddha (Jataka) with a title written in the Sukhothai
alphabet for each picture. Some of these pictures were drawn in the style of art similar to the characteristics
of Sri Lankan art.
Wat Tao Thu Riang
In an area of the Sangkhalok kilns, this temple is supposed to have been built after the production of glazed
earthenware in this area came to an end. This ancient temple is composed of a vihara and small chedis. Originally,
there were stucco reliefs of Lord Buddha in the posture of subduing Mara surrounded by a group of gods. Today these
reliefs are in ruins.
Wat Chedi Si Hong
Built in the middle of the southern wall of Sukhothai, the southern gate is known as Pratu Namo (namo gate)
with a defensive tower projecting from the wall. Stone Inscription No. 1 reads "Sukhothai has four gates and
enclosed with a wall of 3400 was long." To defend Sukhothai against enemy attack, two outer earthen ramparts
and an inner wall of earthen structure covered with laterite and brick were built and three moats were dug
in between. Moreover, the moats also functioned as channels to carry away water for flood prevention in Sukhothai.
Situated outside the town wall and to the southeast of Namo gate, this temple was called Wat Salat Dai by locals.
According to the stone inscription found at this temple, Phra Maha Thepi Si Chulalak, a consort of Phra Maha
Dharmaraja Dhiraja II who was a son of Phra Maha Dharmaraja Li Thai, built Wat Asokaram in 1399 AD on the same
occasion as Wat Thaksinaram was constructed. After its completion, she invited a monk named Soraphangkhathera to
be the abbot of the temple. The stone inscription of Wat Asokaram also reveals that this temple, enclosed by a moat,
comprises a lotus-bud shaped chedi that is at present in ruins, a vihara, a manadapa and subordinate chedis.
Wat Chedi Si Hong
Situated 100 metres to the east of Wat Chetuphon, this temple consists of a vihara, the main chedi and subordinate
chedis. Stuccoed reliefs decorating around the base of the main chedi depict male and female in different attire
with ornaments and their hands holding vessels with flora emerging from these containers, symbolizing fertility and
prosperity. Decorative stucco also includes elephant and lion (sim?ha) figures. The anthropomorphic figures already
mentioned may refer to Manus?ayanaga which, according to beliefs in Sri Lanka, means a divine being in the underground
World. The main chedi in bell shape was repaired for several times. At present, the upper part of chedi is in ruins;
only its superimposed stucco that fell down still remain on its base.
Situated on the right of Wat Ton Chan, this temple is famous for four Buddha Images of vast size in four different
postures (sitting, reclining, standing and walking). Their sheer size is very impressive and can be seen from afar.
Enshrined in a mandapa with porches on four sides; these huge Buddha Images also served for supporting the mandapa
roof, a functional feature developed from Burmese architecture in Pagan. Adjacent to the west of this mandapa is
located another mandapa of small size with 20 - indented corners. Trace of a Buddha Image in the posture of subduing
Mara was found in the small mandapa. Also discovered on the exterior wall of the latter mandapa were black floral
designs like those on Chinese wares. Another striking character of Wat Chetuphon is a boundary wall enclosing the
mandapa with four porches. Made of thick slate of large size, the wall has a frame and balustrade, imitating woodwork.
To the west of the mandapa with four porches and the smaller one with indented corners in located a courtyard where
a tree known as Phra Si Maha Pho was planted. A brick wall of 1 metre high was built to enclose this courtyard.
There is no evidence to point out when this temple was constructed. It is believed that the temple was not built yet
during the reign of Pho Khun Ramkhanhaeng. According to the stone inscription of Wat Sorasak; around the middle of the
15th century AD, Venerable Phra Maha Thera Dharmatrailok who was an uncle of a Sukhothai ruler named Phra Maha
Dharmaraja met with monks from Wat Chetuphon to discuss the construction of Chang Rop Chedi and other religious
buildings during his stay at Wat Sorasak. Considering the name of Wat Chetuphon as mentioned in the said stone
inscription together with its architecture style, it is presumable that Wat Chetuphon was an important and flourishing
temple during the late Sukhothai period. A stone inscription was found at Wat Chetuphon. According to the inscription,
Chao Thammarangsi, entering monkshood for 22 years, made a Buddha Image in 1514 AD out of his strong faith in Buddhism.
Wat Kon Laeng
Situated outside the town wall and 600 metres from Namo gate, this small temple consists of the main chedi on an
elevated base like the one of a lotus - bud shaped chedi, a vihara and subordinate chedis made of brick.
Wat Mum Langka
Wat Si Phichit Kirati Kalayaram
Located near the town wall in the southeast on the eastern side of the so-called Phra Ruang road, this temple
might be Wat Lankaram as mentioned in the stone inscription found at Wat Asokaram. The temple consists of the
main chedithat is assumed to have a bell shape by judging from its remaining base of vast size, a vihara, the
ordination hall and subordinate chedis. Remarkably, the position of the ordination hall located to the west of
the main chedi in the accordance with the layout of a temple in the Ayutthaya period.
Wat Phrong Men
Situated at the corner of the town wall in the southeast and to the east of Wat Wihan Thong, this temple is well
known for its circular bull-shaped chedi on an octagonal base. The octagonal base is composed of 4 levels, the
first three levels having plain shapes and the last elaborate one decorated with stucco base-relief. At present,
the upper part above the circular bell-shaped body of the chedi is in ruins.
Wat Si Phichit Kirati Kalayaram
Situated 200 metres to the east of Wat Chedi Si Hong; this temple, with its formal name, Wat Si Pichit Kirati
Kalayaram as mentioned in a stone inscription, was formerly called Wat Ta Then Khung Nang by locals. The temple
was built in 1403 AD by Phra Ratchachonnani Si Thammaratchamada Mahadilok Ratanaratnatkanlong Mae, the queen
consort of Phra Maha Dharmara?ja II and the mother of Phra Maha Dharmar?ja III, a ruler of Sukhothai. She also
invited a monk of high rank from Kamphaeng Phet to help supervise the construction of the temple.
Unlike other chedis in the Sukhothai period; its main chedi in bell shape was built on highly elevated base
consisting 4 levels, the first three levels having rectangular plain shapes and the last one having decorative
20 - indented corners. To the east of the chedi was found a crescent shaped floor on which animal designs were
carved in Sri Lankan style.
Wat Ton Chan
Wat Ton Chan
Located 200 metres to the south of Wat Kon Laeng, this temple is well known for its terracotta of Buddha sealing
or votive tablets called Sa-ne Chan. Its bell shaped chedi of large size is made of brick with porches on four
sides to enshrine Buddha Images. To the east of the chedi is situated a brick vihara with laterite columns to
support its tiled roof.
Wat Wihan Thong
Located close to a canal named Khlong Yang and 1.5 kilometres to the southeast of Namo gate, this temple is
believed to be the one that was mentioned in the stone inscription of Wat Asokaram as Wat Thaksinaram, which
was built by Phra Maha Thepi Si Chulalak, who dedicated it to Venerable Phra Maha Wan Ratana Thera. Its main
chedi in lotus- bud shape is now in ruins.
Wat Chang Lom
Situated 100 meter off Charot Withi Thong road and to the north of Mae Lam Phan canal, this temple is regarded as
a large group of ancient monuments on a vast area of land (100 m x 157 m) enclosed by a ditch. The temple consists
of the main chedi in circular bell shape with 32 elephant statues around its base, a vihara to enshrine a Buddha
Image which is now in ruins, the ordination hall surrounded by water in accordance with the concept of Udaka Sima,
subordinate chedis and a boundary wall to enclose the whole temple.
Wat Chang Lom
Significantly, a stone inscription found at this temple is regarded as evidence of historical value that reveals the
story of a nobleman known as Phanom Sai Dam, who was the husband of a wet nurse named Thet. He was very loyal to
Phra Maha Dharmaraja Li Thai and, to follow in the king's footsteps, entered the monkshood. Dedicating to his king
who passed away; he gave a piece of land in 1390 AD for building a vihara and a scripture hall, made a Buddha Image
and planted a Phra Si Maha Pho tree (Bodhi tree). Moreover, he made a Buddha Image from stone in dedication to the
Queen Mahadevi, sister of of Phra Maha Dharmaraja Li Thai, who ruled Sukhothai during 1362 - 1377 AD when Phra Maha
Dhramaraja Li Thai departed Sukhothai for Phitsanulok and lived there since the last day of his life.
Wat Chide Sung
Situated to the east of Wat Tra Phang Thong Lang, this temple in well known for its main chedi on a very high
base. This circular bell-shaped chedi can be seen from Wat Tra Phang Thong Lang. Its highly elevated base of
14 m x 14 m with 20 - indented corners is unique in style and has not been found in other places. Its from is
similar to the shape of a mandapa with solid walls on all sides. This chedi is believed to be constructed around
the late Sukhothai period. Judging from its high base and other components, this ancient monument might be
considered a development from chedi of Wat Sa Si and the so-called Chedi En in Si Satchanalai.
Wat Tra Phang Thong Lang
Wat Chide Sung
Situated along Charot Withi Thong road, this middle-sized temple is still functioning and has an obvious porch-like
entrance decorated with glass. Ancient monuments in this temple include a mandapa, a vihara, subordinate chedis
enclosed by a ditch and the ordination hall. Without the main chedi, the mandapa functioning as the principle chedi
of the temple is considered a typical character of a temple in the Sukhothai period.
The mandapa made of brick in square form was built to enshrine a Buddha Image of vast size occupying the total space
of the mandapa. The Buddha image is now in ruins. A porch was built on the eastern wall of the mandapa and stucco
reliefs depicting the story of Lord Buddha were appliqued on the other three walls. At present, the stucco relief
is in bad condition. However, there are old photographs of the reliefs which help to shed light on the following:
- A base-relief on the northern wall deals with Lord Buddha torturing an elephant named Nalakhiri, depicts
Lord Buddha standing by Phra Anon (Ananda), his disciple. At his feet there is an elephant going down on its
knees as a sign of defeat.
- A base-relief on the southern wall deals with Lord Buddha descending from heaven after preaching his mother.
The scene depicts Lord Buddha in walking posture, followed by Indra, Brahma and other gods, each coming to bid
farewell to departing Buddha. Its reproduction made before it is in ruins has been on display at the Ramkhamhaeng
- A base-relief on the Western Wall deals with Lord Buddha Preaching the Shakyavamsa clan in Kabilapat. The
carving depicts Lord Buddha performing a miracle during his preashing by making flames of fire burning around him
with the Shakyavamsa clan surrounding the flames.
In the west of Sukhothai, there is a range of hills known as Thuak Khao Pra-thak stretching out as far as the
eye can see and forming a beautiful background. This range of hills abundant in vegetation of all kinds including
herbs also serves as a receptacle for rainwater. Out of local wisdom of the Sukhothai period, this ancient
earthwork of large size was constructed between two hills, namely Khao Kieo Ai Ma and Khao Phra Bat Yai in order to
carry water into canals for irrigation and water supply in Sukhothai. This earthen dike is believed to be mentioned
in Stone Inscription No.1 as Saritphong. According to the said stone inscription. Water from Saritphong was brought
along a southwestern canal named Sao Ho into the town. At present, in cooperation with the Fine Arts Department, Saritphong has been developed by the Royal Irrigation
Department to retain water up to 400,000 cubic metres.
Situated 100 metres to the west of Wat Tuk, this square shrine in the shape of a manadaapa was built of brick.
Its name, Thewalai Mahakaset was mentioned in the stone inscription of Wat Pa Mamuang. According to the said
inscription made by Phra Maha Dharmaraja Li Thai in 1362 AD, Images of Siva and Vishnu were placed in the shrine
by Phra Maha Dharmaraja Li Thai in 1349 AD, for Brahmins to worship. The Images of Siva and Vishnu already
mentioned are believed to correspond to a group of bronze sculptures of Hindu gods wearing royal attire and
adorned with ornaments. Many of these sculptures are currently displayed at the National Museum in Bangkok.
Located 2.3 kilometres to the west of Or gate at the foot of the hill in the forest Aranyik, important ancient
monuments in this temple include a group of bases of small buildings, the ordination hall, a vihara and a rectangular
laterite cistern with supply of water all year round. A walkway paved with stone was built to connect the ordination
hall and the vihara. Each of the small buildings above mentioned was for a monk to practise insight meditation.
Wat Chang Rob
Located 2.4 kilometres to the west of Or gate, significant ancient monuments in this temple include the main chedi in
circular bell shape on a square base decorated with 24 sculptures of elephants' upper parts, the ordination hall in
front of the main chedi and five subordinate chedis around the main chedi and the ordination hall.
Wat Chedi Ngam
Situated on the mound with an ascent paved with slate slabs, important ancient monuments in this temple include
the main chedi in the shape of a bell on a square base with porches to enshrine Buddha images on four sides of its
lower base, a vihara base made of laterite and paved with stone, brick and stone buildings for monks to practise
insight meditation and a cistern dug in the laterite soils.
Wat Khao Phra Bat Noi
Situated 2.7 kilometres to the west of Or gate, important ancient monuments on the mound include a chedi with
niches to enshrine Buddha Images on four sides, a vihara enshrining Buddha Footprints currently exhibited at
the Ramkhamhaeng National Museum, buildings for monks to practise insight meditation and a large chedi base made
of laterite. Remarkably, the bell shaped chedi first mentioned has its body covered in thin lines like the
impression of a fishing nest, and it is the only one in Sukhothai with such a distinctive feature.
On the north side of Route 12 is Wat Mangkon (Dragon Monastery). A relatively large complex, the bot, surrounded
by large leaf-shaped boundary stones, has an unusual slate-tiled brick base. To the west of the bot is the base
of a pavilion or sala, and to the north the remains of a Ceylonese-style bell-shaped phra chedi.
Wat Pa Mamuang
Situated in the west of Sukhothai, this temple was mentioned in several stone inscriptions of the Sukhothai period.
Stone Inscription No.6 found at this temple refers to the importance of the temple as a place where Phra Maha
Dharmaraja was ordained as a priest in 1362 AD, At present, the remains of building in the temple include the
ordination hall and chedis. The temple is not far away from Thewalai Mahakaset where bronze Images of Hindu gods
like Vishnu, Siva and Brahma in Sukhothai style were found.
Wat Phra Yuen
Wat Saphan Hin
Wat Phra Yuen is around 200 m from Wat Mangkon and 1500 m from the city walls, just to the south of Route 12.
The remains of a bot can be identified by the bai sema (boundary stones) that surround it and a mondop houses
a large standing Buddha image.
Wat Saphan Hin
On a hill overlooking the old city stands one of Sukhothai's most beautiful Buddha images, the Phra Attharot
Buddha of Wat Saphan Hin. The temple's name translates to "stone bridge", which comes from the slate stone
pathway that makes the climb to the top of the hill only slightly easier. The path is about 300 meters long.
There is a stone platform with a small square stupa on it about two-thirds of the way up. The large (about 12.5
meters high) Buddha images stands in the remains of a prayer hall at the crest of the hill. He gazes out over
the old city with a face that displays a peaceful strength. According to the inscription on the stone pillar
found by the future King Mongkut at Sukhothai, King Ramkamhaeng would ride his white elephant up to Wat Saphan
Hin on the full moon to pay his respects to this Buddha.
Wat Si Thon
Wat Chedi Ngam
Situated in the west of Sukhothai, significant ancient monuments in the temple include a manฺdฺapa and a vihara.
Made of brick with thick wall, the square manadฺapa used to enshrine a Buddha Image which is now in ruins. Its
thick wall was designed to support a heavy brick structure forming the top of the building. Topped with the
brick structure, the manฺdฺapa enshrining the Buddha Image looked more prominent than the vihara located in front
of it. Only a base and columns of the vihara still remain. The vihara with a tiled roof of wooden structure was
used as a place for people to perform an act of worship to the Buddha Image enshrined in the manฺdฺapa. Constructing
separately the building for worshippers was like the way it had been during the lifetime of Lord Buddha. Staying
in any temple, Lord Buddha dwelt in his own place which was separate from a vihara where his worshippers performed
Wat Si Thon was a place where a learned monk with knowledge of the Tripitaka from Sri Lanka stayed. This monk is
believed to be a person who composed an eulogy to Phra Maha Dharmaraja Li Thai on Stone Inscription No.4.
Wat Tham Hip Bon
2.6 kilometres to the west of Pratu Or and resting on a mound, significant ancient monuments in this
temple include a laterite viha-ra, a bell-shaped chedi and two brick buildings for monks to practice
Wat Tham Hip Lang
On the mound adjacent to Wat Tham Hip Bon, ancient monuments in this temple were mostly of stone and
laterite. The main bell-shaped chedi a viha-ra and an ascent from the foot of the mound to the temple
were all constructed from stone.
Wat Tra Phang Chang Phuak
1.6 kilometres to the west of Or gate, this large ancient monument is similar to a big viha-ra. Very little of
its style and form remains to be seen. Traces of brickwork and laterite were found here. To the south of the
ancient mound is a large eservoir 30 m.x 40 m. A larger one, Tra Phang Chang Phuak is located to the west. This
temple and its stone inscription were mentioned in the book “Thiao Muang Phra Ruang”, written by King Rama VI
of the Rattanakosin period. A comparative study between the stone inscription mentioned above and the one (No. 102)
from an unknown source on the Krailat artificial hill in the Suan Sai garden of the Grand Palace was conducted by
Professor Dr. Prasert Na Nagara. The study revealed that their contents are the same.
Situated 70 metres to the west of Wat Si Thon, this temple has never been mentioned in any documents. Only old
photographs of its stucco relief taken 90 years ago can serve as evidence for these ancient monuments. The
photographs are available at the National Archives and were published in some books on Sukhothai. Decorating
the wall of a manadaapa, the stucco relief depicts the story of Lord Buddha descending from heaven.